Greatest Inventions of All Time
An important part of human nature is aspiration for progress. A man changes the environment with scientific and technical innovations. Everyday, a new patent is introduced somewhere in the world. Some inventions were invented long time ago and made our lives so much easier, that we got used to them as if the nature itself had made them. For example, we use our computers everyday, check the mail and make contacts with people throughout the world, in a few minutes, not being aware of the one who enabled us to do that.
Internet best inventions. 1960s-1970s: ARPANET: Commonly thought of as the predecessor to the Internet and created by the US Department of Defenses Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The first known fully operational packet-switching network, the ARPANET was designed to facilitate communication between ARPA computer terminals during the early 1960s, at a time when computers where far too expensive for widespread usage. Though conception of the idea behind ARPANET began as early as 1962, the first stable link between multiple computers through the ARPANET occurred in 1969, ten years after the first conceptual network architectural models were initiated independently by Paul Baran and Donald Davies.
In the 1870s, two inventors, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other. Bell patented his telephone first. Gray and Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.
The Printing Press
One of the best inventions Printing press, machine by which text and images are transferred to paper or other media by means of ink. Although movable type, as well as paper, first appeared in China, it was in Europe that printing first became mechanized. The earliest mention of a printing press is in a lawsuit in Strasbourg in 1439 revealing construction of a press for Johannes Gutenberg and his associates.
The Plane greatest inventions of all time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley defined the forces of lift and drag and presented the first scientific design for a fixed-wing aircraft. Building on his pioneering work in aeronautics, scientists and engineers began designing and testing airplanes. A young boy made the first manned flight in a glider designed by Cayley in 1849. In 1874, Felix duTemple made the first attempt at powered flight by hopping off the end of a ramp in a steam-driven monoplane. Other scientists, such as Francis Wenham and Horatio Phillips studied cambered wing designs mounted in wind tunnels and on whirling arms. Finally in 1894, Sir Hiram Maxim made a successful takeoff (but a woefully uncontrolled flight) in a biplane "test rig." At the same time, Otto Lilienthal made the first controlled flights, shifting his body weight to steer a small glider. Inspired by his success, Wilbur and Orville Wright experiment with aerodynamic surfaces to control an airplane in flight. Their work leads them to make the first controlled, sustained, powered flights on December 17, 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Television important inventions. Facsimile transmission systems pioneered methods of mechanically scanning graphics in the early 19th century. The Scottish inventor Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. The English physicist Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. The first practical facsimile system, working on telegraph lines, was developed and put into service by the Italian priest Giovanni Caselli from 1856 onward. Willoughby Smith, an English electrical engineer, discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873.
The history of the laser inventions that changed the world is an exciting story told here. Often taking place itself within an exciting ongoing story itself, of which little is known, and shall have to be told. And that further as one exciting event that shall have to be told here is that of the historic origin of the 'optical pumping effect'. And that which proved to have its original beginning long-before the lasers. In what took place, so unexpectedly yet, at CNRS in Paris originally — in as early as 1947. And yet following much that took place which lead to the discovery of the crystalline Ruby, that of ruby R Line which proved to have an optical gain of special interest. Having its origin — in the discovery of the 'optical pumping effect', and long before the lasers. An exciting story as shall have to be told.
Antibiotics greatest inventions of all time. It wasn’t until the late 19th century that scientists began to observe antibacterial chemicals in action. Paul Ehrlich, a German physician, noted that certain chemical dyes coloured some bacterial cells but not others. He concluded that, according to this principle, it must be possible to create substances that can kill certain bacteria selectively without harming other cells. In 1909, he discovered that a chemical called arsphenamine was an effective treatment for syphilis. This became the first modern antibiotic, although Ehrlich himself referred to his discovery as 'chemotherapy' – the use of a chemical to treat a disease. The word 'antibiotics' was first used over 30 years later by the Ukrainian-American inventor and microbiologist Selman Waksman, who in his lifetime discovered over 20 antibiotics.
The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. The history of wireless power transmission. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222808777_The_history_of_wireless_power_transmission [accessed Jul 25, 2017].
The Steam Engine
One of the most significant industrial challenges of the 1700's was the removal of water from mines. Steam was used to pump the water from the mines. Now, this might seem to have very little to do with modern steam-powered electrical power plants. However, one of the fundamental principles used in the development of steam-based power is the principle that condensation of water vapor can create a vacuum. This brief history discusses how condensation was used to create vacuum for operation of early steam-based pumps, and how James Watt invented the separate condenser. Although the cyclic processes presented in this history are not used in today's continuous flow steam turbines, current systems use separate condensers operating at subatmospheric pressure, adapting the principles explained here. Also, the stories of the inventors and their inventions offer insight into the process of technological discovery.
The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Computer greatest inventions of all time. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage.